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The Four P’s

Nearly every company on the planet sets out with the main objective of making money. This is usually done by manufacturing some form of product, or offering a service, and then charging people money for it. This fundamental principle is fairly straight-forward, although it contains many specific details.

First of all, it is a very rare case where a company can offer a product or service that is truly unique and cannot be supplied by anybody else. This means that your enterprise will be contesting with other businesses that sell a similar item and you will both be trying to make money from the same shoppers, who only want to spend their cash once. So how can you improve the chances of them spending money with you?

Marketing is the primary tool used by modern businesses to draw prospective customers to do business with them and not with their rivals. It is a very extensive topic that is influenced by a great deal of internal and external factors, but when done right it can be the single business practice that can make or break a company.

So where should you begin when constructing a marketing strategy for your own company? Well, every situation is different, and each business will have its own set of strengths and weaknesses that must be taken into consideration, but there is a marketing principle that can be applied to almost any company to be used as a marketing platform.

The Marketing Mix

The marketing mix was a term that was first coined during the 1950’s and is an expression that is used to describe the fundamental building blocks of any marketing strategy. It demonstrates the fact that marketing is not a straightforward, blunt-edged business tool, but rather a subtle balance of different elements of business functions. It got its name because it is similar to the ingredients checklist for a recipe.

The term was later developed to include the idea of “four P’s” that described the critical elements of the marketing mix. The formalisation of these P’s made it very easy for company managers and marketers to quickly associate the elements of marketing to the strengths of their own companies, and by doing so could very quickly create a customised and effective marketing system. The four P’s are; Product, Price, Place and Promotion.

There are several income channels for refurb so our company applied marketing ideas to open new routes to our buyers.


Although every aspect of the marketing mix is a necessity, the “product” element mentioned as one of the four P’s is possibly the most critical of all. It describes the physical product or intangible service that your business will be offering, and at the end of the day it is the reason that buyers are going to spend money with you.

Many people do not think that marketing has any place to play when it comes to the physical product that your business is selling. In fact, the common train of thought very often bears the precise opposite sentiment. Surely it should be the other way around – your manufacturing department creates an item for sale and then it is the job of the marketing department to find ways to sell it, right? This is not always the case.

Take the computer software market as an example. There are many well-known brands of both operating system and software application products in the market already, and because the market is fairly well saturated it would be very tough (and expensive) to “take on the big boys”.

Rather than creating an operating system and then attempting to craft a marketing strategy to rival the likes of Microsoft or Apple, it would be more effective to look at what types of product are sought after in the current marketplace, and how viable it would be to produce and sell them. By being aware of the marketing mix early on in your product development cycle you can prevent business dead-ends at a later time.

Once your products have been designed and created it is still a vital skill to be able to objectively review your own products to recognise the reasons that a customer should buy your product rather than a competitors’.

A different form of this part of the marketing mix is called product variation and is generally used to either extend the lifecycle of a product already in the market, or to make your brand new product attractive to as many customers as possible. Again, this method can be applied at all stages of product development.

The car industry uses this technique very effectively by offering different engines, trim packages and interior options with the cars that they sell. They use the marketing mix to great effect to sell their own products in an incredibly competitive marketplace. Although these companies may have substantial marketing budgets, the same concepts can be applied to all companies.

One of the newest forms of promotional marketing is via websites which offer versatile and accessible means to reach potential customers.


Another key factor in the marketing mix concerns the price of your products or services. This is not a simple case of performing market research to determine the top price that your customers would spend (although that can be a handy tool to use), but rather using the price of your products as a strategic weapon designed to achieve any particular objectives your company has.

Although it may seem obvious, it is still worth noting that price has always been, and likely always will be, one of the crucial factors that shoppers take into account when they are making a purchase. It is also worth noting that customers don’t always consider the cheapest price to be the best value.

There are many questions that you need to ask yourself when devising a good pricing plan, key among which are the price sensitivity of your clients, what your rivals are doing and how can pricing maximise your own profits. From a strategy point of view though, pricing can be covered by two primary principals; price skimming and also penetration pricing. These are outlined below.

Price Skimming

The main idea behind price skimming is to make as much money as possible from the segment of the market which is price-insensitive and will be willing to spend a large amount of money to receive a product or service early on. Not only can this technique yield great financial advantages, but it can also advertise an exclusive and high quality image of your item.

This pricing technique is very often used in the consumer electronics industry where customers will often eagerly await the launch of a new mobile phone or computer games console. Makers could set almost any price they wanted to and there would still be a loyal core of customers that would pay it.

Penetration Pricing

Penetration pricing is at the opposite end of the pricing spectrum, and is tailored towards gaining a large market share at a short-term cost so that monetary benefits can be earned long into the future. It can be a risky strategy, but when used correctly it can create revenue streams for many years to come.

Another thing to bear in mind is that “price” is the one part of the marketing mix that will generate income for a business. The other members of the four P’s will all cost money to create or undertake.

Grabbing any of the on-line search market is very beneficial, so choose a phrase, like building refurbishment then assess if the phrase has an adequate search marketplace for your needs.


Place is the part of the marketing mix that is often not addressed by companies, but it is still a significant part of selling your product successfully. In a nutshell, it describes the method in which you provide your product to your customer, and consequently how you receive money from them. It can be a great marketing approach when used appropriately.

The most common ramifications of place-based marketing are the physical locations in which your goods are sold. For the vast majority of consumer products, this includes the distribution infrastructure between your manufacturing centres and retailers or other outlets around the country. Since distribution of a physical product costs money it is crucial to determine your own priorities and adjust your distribution network appropriately.

With the growing use of the Internet by your potential customers, marketing methods have had to take into account how they use the Internet to help distribute their products. By using the Internet as a place of contact (or even as a whole distribution channel in download-based markets such as MP3s) companies are now able to reach out to a large pool of potential customers.


When you mention the word “marketing”, most people instantly think of the promotional aspect of the marketing mix, although as we have seen, this is only one branch of a more comprehensive system. Promotion can be used on a very individual basis or as a mass communication tool, and whilst it can be a costly undertaking it is often an important one. The primary concern of promotion is to deliver a particular message that will improve sales.

Advertising is one of the most typical forms of promotion. Typically it would be done by posting on billboards, creating short clips for TV and radio or by physically distributing flyers or leaflets to potential buyers. With the coming of the information age we have seen a great increase in promotion via e-mail and the Internet, or simply as targeted advertising materials posted through your door.

Another important part of promotion involves branding, which will not necessarily yield more product sales directly, but relates back to one of the preliminary functions of marketing; getting customers to choose your product over those of your rivals.

Putting it into Practice

As previously mentioned each company is different and will have different marketing requirements. By using a mixture of the four P’s discussed above you can take a good view of your own marketing plan.

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